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[Epidemiology and etiology of infectious diarrheas. The case of Mexico].


Valdespino-Gomez JL, Garcia-Garcia ML, Del Rio-Zolezzi A, Giono-Cerezo S, Salcedo-Alvarez RA, Sepulveda-Amor J


: Rev Latinoam Microbiol 1994 Oct-Dec;36(4):307-24


Gastrointestinal infections represent a health problem. It is estimated that 1647 million cases of diarrhea and 3.2 million deaths due to this cause occur among children less than five years of age per year. Those belonging to this age group have 15 times more risk of dying because of diarrhea. Cases of liquid acute diarrhea with blood represent 80% of cases, diarrhea with blood represent 10%. Most frequent causes of liquid diarrhea are enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and rotaviruses and most frequent causes of bloody diarrhea are Shigella, E. coli (EHEC and EPEC). Campylobacter jejuni and Entamoeba histolytica. Annually 15,000 cases of typhoid fever are reported that continue being a public health problem. A negative correlation has been observed between the use of oral rehydration and infant mortality due to diarrhea. After prevention and control measures for cholera, a decrease in morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea has been observed. However, to reduce mortality due to this cause, it is necessary to treat the cases of acute dysentery and persistent diarrhea as well as to increase coverage of health care, to standardize the studies of etiology of diarrhea in Mexico, to establish surveillance centers for the study of diarrhea that give information on the distribution, frequency and trends of microbial agents and to achieve standardized microbiological and parasitological studies of etiology of diarrhea that support public health interventions as vaccination and selective administration of antibiotics. MeSH Terms: Adolescence Adult Aged AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology Bacterial Infections/epidemiology Child Child, Preschool Diarrhea/etiology Diarrhea/epidemiology* Diarrhea, Infantile/etiology Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology Disease Outbreaks English Abstract Female Food Poisoning/epidemiology Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology Human Infant Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology Latin America/epidemiology Male Mexico/epidemiology Middle Age Prevalence Protozoan Infections/epidemiology Virus Diseases/epidemiology World Health PMID: 7701141, UI: 95215657 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------





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